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About the Authors

Barbara Allen Babcock

Photo - Barbara Allen Babcock
Barbara Allen Babcock holds a B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania and an L.L.B. from Yale Law School. The first woman appointed to the regular faculty, as well as the first woman to hold an endowed chair and the first emerita, at Stanford Law School, Professor Babcock is an expert in criminal and civil procedure. She is also known nationwide for her research into the history of women in the legal profession and, in particular, for her research into the life of Clara Foltz, a pioneering female attorney.

A former assistant attorney general for the Civil Division in the United States Department of Justice, Professor Babcock is a distinguished teacher, being the only four-time winner of the Hurlbut Award for Excellence in Teaching at Stanford Law School. Before joining the Stanford faculty in 1972, she served as a staff attorney and then as the first director of the Public Defender Service of the District of Columbia. Upon her graduation from law school, she clerked for Judge Henry Edgerton of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and worked for the noted criminal defense attorney, Edward Bennett Williams.


Toni M. Massaro

Photo - Toni M. Massaro
Toni M. Massaro is Regents' Professor, Milton O. Riepe Chair in Constitutional Law, and Dean Emerita of the James E. Rogers College of Law at the University of Arizona. Professor Massaro holds a B.S. from Northwestern University and a J.D. from the College of William and Mary.

In addition to her numerous publications and presentations, Professor Massaro is a member of several public service organizations, including the State Bar of Arizona Leadership Institute (member, Board of Directors), the American Bar Foundation (Fellow), and the Bar Institute Leadership Board, Arizona State Bar. 


Norman W. Spaulding

Photo - Norman W. Spaulding

Norman W. Spaulding holds a B.A. from Williams College and a J.D. from Stanford Law School. A nationally recognized scholar in the area of professional responsibility and the legal profession, his research focuses on the history of the American legal profession and professional identity. In 2004, the Association of American Law Schools presented him with its Outstanding Scholarly Paper Prize for “Constitution as Counter-Monument: Federalism, Reconstruction and the Problem of Collective Memory,” which was published in the Columbia Law Review.

Before joining the Stanford Law School faculty in 2005, Spaulding was a professor of law at the UC Berkeley School of Law and an associate at Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, where he did environmental litigation. He also served as a law clerk to Judge Betty Fletcher of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and Judge Thelton Henderson of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California.